Manhole covers can disrupt the pattern of paving and need to be located and designed with some care. They should be sited well within an area of paving, aligned with the pattern, and not straddle different finishes, patterns or colours. Existing covers and frames can be taken up and realigned. Metal ones can be painted to tone with the paving. Alternatively, they can be changed for a deeply recessed type in which pavers can be set to match the surrounding surface. Thin pavers may be required, possibly cut specially, and bedded in thin bed adhesive rather than in the normal mortar. Careful setting out is necessary, otherwise the extra effort made to achieve a matching cover will be wasted.

cobblelock driveway

As a general rule, steps in the open air should be more generous than those within buildings. The dimensions of treads and risers will be dictated by the angle of the slope of the ground, unless the whole lie of the land is to be altered. As a guide, the going of the tread should not be less than 300mm (12in), and ideally between 360 and 400mm (14 and 16in). Riser height should be between 100 and 175mm (4 and 7in). It is most important that treads and risers are consistent throughout the flight, irregularities cause stumbling and the risk of falling. To clear surface water, there should be a slight fall on each step, say 6mm (¼in) from riser to nosing – slightly more for very deep treads. Appropriate dimensions can be achieved by using standard format bricks and pavers in a variety of arrangements.
Compared with paving in adjacent areas, a positive change in bond pattern for the treads is advisable as it emphasizes the step edge when approaching the change of level. This is particularly important when there is only a single step.

Construction consists of a concrete base with paver bricks bedded on it and jointed in mortar. For simple and economical construction, the use of cut pavers, and complicated shaping of the base concrete, should be avoided. This form of construction is vulnerable to lime staining of the steps because rain or groundwater leaches lime from the underlying concrete and deposits it on the surface to form a stain. To minimize the risk of lime staining, the concrete surface should be coated with brush-applied bituminous emulsion damp-proofing material and, while this is still tacky, a dressing of sharp sand should be applied to provide a key for the bedding mortar.

dundrum paving

Paved surfaces should be laid with a fall (a slight slope) to allow rainwater to drain off without causing puddles. Even though the joints in the ‘flexible method’ of paving described below are sand-filled and not mortared, water will not readily drain through them and the surface must be laid to a fall. A gradient of 1 in 40 is recommended, and 1 in 60 should be regarded as a minimum. Lesser gradients might seem to be acceptable, but they often lead to puddles in wet conditions because of slight irregularities or settlement. In private gardens occasional puddles might seem to be acceptable, but they can cause unsightly staining. Drainage channels, if accurately constructed, may be to a lesser fall (minimum 1 in 100).

In most domestic situations the surfaces of paths, gravel driveway and patios can be laid sloping towards adjacent grassed areas or, preferably, planting beds, provided they are relatively free-draining. Where this is not possible, e.g. in a courtyard that s totally paved and enclosed by buildings, or a sunken area surrounded by raised planters, steps up, or other raised edges, the paving should be laid to fall to one or more gulleys that are connected to a soakaway.

Where paving abuts a wall, its surface should be a minimum of 150mm (6in) below the damp-proof course in the wall. Also, it should be laid to fall away from the wall, so that drained water will not saturate the base of the wall to cause staining and the risk of frost damage. If this is not possible, a drainage channel should be provided at the foot of the wall with a gulley connected to a soakaway. Alternatively, stop the paving short of the wall by about 200mm (8in) and incorporate a gravel filled trench about 150mm (6in) or so deep.

As you begin your training, there are some suggestions that will make training more fun, safer, and more effective. The essentials to productive training that are outlined here are discussed in more detail later.
Train on a Regular Basis
The adage “Use it or lose it” is, unfortunately, true when it comes to maintaining cardiovascular efficiency, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, and lean muscle mass. The body is unlike any machine yet to be developed. The body’s efficiency improves with use, in contrast to machines, and it deteriorates with disuse. Sporadic training slows down the attainment of goals and has been the demise of many with good intentions. All too often, cessation of a regular training program begins with an innocent day of missing a workout and ends with missing many more. With each training session missed, the goal of improved fitness, strength, and appearance moves farther out of reach. It is important not to miss that first workout, because decreases in training status begin to occur after 72 hours of no training.
As researchers undertake studies involving older populations, it becomes apparent that individuals who follow regular exercise programs maintain their fitness levels, while those who do not can expect to lose as much as one pound of muscle per decade. Herbert deVries, a well­respected researcher, contends that much of the strength loss observed in older individuals is as much a function of sedentary living as it is an outcome of the aging process.
Gradually Increase Training Intensity
The body adapts to the stresses of weight training when training occurs on a regular basis, and when the intensity of training sessions is progressively increased over a reasonable period of time. Conversely, when the intensity of training is haphazard, the body’s ability to adapt and become stronger and more enduring is seriously compromised. The dramatic improvements typically observed in response to training do not happen under these conditions, and the excitement that prompts you to continue training is no longer present. As excitement dwindles, attendance at training sessions becomes more and more difficult, and improvements become nonexistent. Muscle soreness does not go away, discouraging your enthusiasm for training even more.
Be Willing to Persevere
To maximize the time spent in training, you must learn to push yourself to the uncomfortable point of muscle failure during many of your sets. You must be willing to persevere through the discomfort (not pain) that accompanies reaching this point. Believing that weight training can make dramatic changes in your health and physique—which it definitely can—is essential to making the commitment to train hard and with regularity. Typically, you will feel the difference in muscle tone (firmness) immediately, and strength and endurance changes become somewhat noticeable after the second or third week. Be prepared, however, for variations in performance during the early stages of training, and do not become discouraged if one workout does not produce the outcomes of a previous one.
Your brain is going through a learning curve, too, as it tries to figure out which muscles to “recruit” (call into action) for which movement in each exercise. Thus, it is a time in which your neuromuscular system (your brain, nerves, and muscles) is learning to adapt to the stimulus of training. Be patient! This period is soon followed by significant gains in muscle tone and strength and decreased muscle soreness. This is truly an exciting time in your program! At this point your attitude dictates the magnitude of the future gains you will experience.
Strive for Quality Reps
Many people seem to believe that more repetitions in an exercise is synonymous with improvement, regardless of the technique used during execution. The speed with which they are performed is a very important factor in your ability to execute quality reps. In exercise programs designed to develop power, explosive exercise movements are required. However, in a beginning program, slow, controlled movements are desired. Consider “slow” to mean that approximately 2 seconds are used to complete the upward phase and 4 seconds for the downward phase of an exercise. It is especially important that exercises be performed at a rate slow enough to permit full extension and flexion at a joint (e.g., in the biceps curl, the elbow is fully extended and then fully flexed). Jerking, slinging, and using momentum are not recommended ways to complete a repetition. Remember that the quality of the performed exercise should be viewed as being more important than simply the number of repetitions performed, especially when the goal is improved flexibility. Other recommendations concerning proper exercise execution are provided in Steps 3 through 8.
Always Warm up and Cool Down
Workouts should always begin with some warm­up exercises so that the muscles are better prepared to meet the challenges presented by various exercises. A cool­ down period will help to provide the opportunity for your muscles to recover, and offer an excellent opportunity to work on flexibility. An example of appropriate warm­up and cool­down exercises to use are presented in Step 2.
Eat Smart
Nutrition is a key factor. It makes no sense to train hard if you are not also eating nutritionally sound meals. Poor nutrition in itself can reduce strength, muscular endurance, and muscle hypertrophy. Because training puts great demands on your body, your body needs nutrients to encourage adaptation and promote gains. To neglect this aspect of your training program is definitely an oversight if you are serious about improving. A more detailed discussion is provided in the section “Nutritional and Body Weight Issues.”
Build in Days of Rest
The intervening days of rest in your training program are very important to gains in strength, muscular endurance, and size. To train on consecutive days without the rest that allows the body to recuperate may result in injury, a plateauing in gains, or a drop in performance. Properly timed rest is as important to your strength gains as training on a regular basis.
Obtain Medical Clearance
A history or presence of joint (e.g., arthritis, surgery), respiratory (e.g., asthma), or cardiovascular (e.g., hypertension, arrhythmias, murmurs) problems, may or may not make weight training exercises an inappropriate activity to undertake; however, the implications of such conditions must be addressed before developing an exercise program, and certainly before exercise actually begins. Refer to Table 1 and carefully consider the questions presented. If you answer “yes” to any of them, consult a physician prior to beginning a training program.

Although protein, mineral, and vitamin supplementation is strongly endorsed by many, little research has been presented that substantiates claims of improved muscular endurance, hypertrophy, or strength among individuals who eat well. Again and again, dietitians, exercise physiologists, and sports medicine physicians conclude that a normal diet will meet protein dietary needs of the typical person. The exception may be that an increase in carbohydrate and protein intake is appropriate for those who participate in aggressive weight training programs.

body builder
Steroid Use Considerations
Conversations regarding supplementation are all too often accompanied by questions concerning steroids. It is human nature to look for shortcuts, and this is especially common among people who desire to make their body more attractive, stronger, and healthier. But there are no safe shortcuts. Anabolic and rogenic steroids in the presence of adequate diet and training can contribute to an increase in lean body mass; however, the harmful side effects from anabolic steroid treatments greatly outweigh any positive effect.
There are two forms of steroids: oral, or pill form; and water or oil based
liquid that is injected using a hypodermic needle. These two forms are gauged for potency by comparing the anabolic effects (muscle building and strength inducing) versus the androgenic effects (increased male or female secondary sex characteristics such as increased body hair length or density, voice lowering, and breast enlargement). This ratio is termed the therapeutic index.
Adverse Side Effects
Studies included in a position paper by the National Strength and Conditioning Association on steroid use (Stone 1993) have cited increases in muscle size and
strength, but not all outcomes from their use are that positive. Prolonged high dosages of steroids can lead to long lasting impairment of normal testosterone endocrine (natural steroid) function, and decreasing natural testosterone levels and potential for future physical development. With a decrease in testosterone the body cannot make gains or even retain what had already been developed.
The health consequences of steroid use can include chronic illness such as heart disease, liver trouble, urinary tract abnormalities, and sexual dysfunction. A shortened life may be a consequence. There are also immediate short term
effects, including increased blood pressure, acne, testicular atrophy, gynecomastia (male breast enlargement), sore nipples, decreased sperm count, prostatic enlargement, and increased aggression. Other side effects that have been reported include hair loss, fever, nausea, diarrhea, nosebleeds, lymph node swelling, increased appetite, and a burning sensation during urination. The major psychological symptoms include paranoia, delusions of grandeur, and auditory hallucinations.

When steroid use is discontinued after short term use, most side effects disappear. However, females who take steroids may have permanent deepening of the voice, facial hair, baldness, clitoral enlargement, and a decrease in breast size.
One of the most serious effects of taking anabolic steroids is the increased probability of developing coronary artery disease. Users often have high levels of total cholesterol, low levels of the desirable high density lipoprotein (HDL) component, and elevated blood pressure, all of which are significant heart disease risk factors.